Out of these two, ethics is a means for achieving monotheism.
He taught monotheism and ethics in Mecca and religious laws in Medina. The focus of this paper is on the second goal of the Prophet, that of establishing and spreading ethics, a goal he unceasingly strove to achieve even during his political life. After clarifying the meaning of morality and our present method of research, the different aspects of the socio-political life of Prophet Muhammad in Medina will be discussed from a moral aspect. In the Holy Qur'an, Prophet Muhammad has been introduced as a person of great moral character.
Indeed, he introduced himself as having been sent to refine morality 2. Two questions arise at this point: first, regarding the meaning of ethics, and second, regarding whether his mission is only specific to personal behavior or if it can also be extended to the realm of politics and society. Ethics refers to all free and conscious behaviors, which are either admired or disapproved of by all human beings. Since ethical goals of the Prophet were not restricted to personal behavior, the political and social activities of the Prophet must also be included in his goals.
Thus, the government he was to establish had to be moral in both its goals and its style.
Two methods will be used to analyze the success of this goal, namely, the theological method and the scientific method. The theological method: it is accepted as an undeniable premise that the Prophet possessed a moral character, and these moral principles were accomplished in the political sphere. Moreover, if one encounters an event that appears questionable, the theological method is used to justify it.
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Using this method, evidence of any slight immoral behavior will prove the hypothesis wrong. The scientific method might seem difficult to accept for a Muslim because there is the possibility of concluding that the hypothesis cannot be proven, or the opposite of it being confirmed. However, due to being confident about the truth, Islam calls people to reflect and show loyalty to their reason.
Thus, based on the recommendation of religion and intellect, the scientific method is chosen. Say there is no god but God [and by doing so] you will prosper 3. In addition to this, He opposes any unethical behavior. The unity of a community is a unity that goes beyond personal, group, or tribal interests.
In such a community, members will not cross boundaries for the sake of their personal interests. Islam rejects not merely the non- intellectual and unethical culture during a particular period of time in Arabia ; rather, it is the unethical cultures at all times and in all places that are disapproved of, since an eternal religion must have eternal principles.
In an ignorant society, intellect is replaced by carnal desires and ethics by immorality. Regarding issues related to taking power and establishing governance, the Prophet continuously acted upon moral principles. By no means did he attempt to use deception or violence, the two common means employed by dictatorial oppressors. After ten years of tireless propagation in Mecca and only two months after being released from Abu Talib's valley, Prophet Muhammad lost his uncle, Abu Talib, and his wife, Lady Khadijah, two of his staunchest political and emotional supporters.
The pagans took advantage of the loss and increased their mistreatment towards him. One of these types of pressures was plotting his death on many occasions. Another was leaving him without support in the tribal power structure, although he firmly stood his ground, insisting that he achieve his goal in spreading the message. He tell the people, "I do not want to force anything on you; my only request is that you protect me from being killed so that I can convey the message of my God 5.
Near the end of the tenth year of his mission, the Prophet went to the city of Taif, attempting to gain the support of its inhabitants. After ten days, disappointed by their reaction, he returned to Mecca. Once outside Mecca, he sent messages to some people asking for permission to enter the city under their protection, but he was denied entry.
Whilst in Mecca, the Prophet continued to spread the message to the people and tribes in Mecca. In the year 11th of his mission, he met a group of six people from the Khazraj tribe whilst he was preaching amongst the Arab tribes during the Hajj pilgrimage. He then asked them to accept Islam and to help him achieve his goals. In this way, with the help of the Prophet, they thought that they could bring an end to all the battles and slaughter and achieve unity under his leadership:.
May be God with you brings them together. Therefore, they converted to Islam and volunteered to invite their companions to Islam. They replied, "Only a short time has passed from the battle of Bu'ath and if you come to Yathrib it would not be of any use. Let us return and let peace be established amongst us, then we will come to you during the Hajj pilgrimage next year.
The following year, twelve people came from Medina and paid allegiance to the Prophet based on some mutually accepted principles. The contents of the oath of allegiance were not related to political or military issues; rather, it was solely based on ethical issues.
In this verse, addressing the Prophet, God states:. O Prophet! If faithful women come to you, to take the oath of allegiance to you, pledging that they shall not ascribe any partners to God, that they shall not steal, nor commit adultery, nor kill their children, nor utter any slander that they may have intentionally fabricated, nor disobey you in what is right, then accept their allegiance, and plead for them to God for forgiveness. Indeed God is All-forgiving, All-merciful. The power structure that the Prophet formed was based on public participation. There was no gap between the people and the leader.
He encouraged people according to their individual talents and capacities. The Prophet would never impose anything on anyone. In the month of Dhul Hijjah of the year 13th of his mission, a group of people from Medina went to Mecca for the Hajj pilgrimage. Seventy- five people met the Prophet in a place called Aqabah. In the beginning, Abbas started the conversation and said:.
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Consult with each other and make a firm decision on which you all agree. If you find yourselves incapable of maintaining your loyalty to him and defending him against the Arabs' enmity, leave him right now. Since they had eagerly accepted the Prophet's invitation, they asked him to continue his work in Medina and voluntarily undertook the responsibility of supporting him with their lives. Therefore, the Holy Prophet asked them to defend him against opposition to enable in fulfilling his Divine mission.
Then, he stated, "I pay allegiance to you to defend me in the way you defend your women and children. We have inherited the art of fighting from our ancestors, generation after generation. My blood is your blood and my respect is your respect. I am from you and you are from me. I will fight with anyone who fights with you and will be at peace with anyone who is at peace with you At this moment, they shouted happily and said, "We accept your allegiance and are ready to sacrifice our wealth, elders, and the nobles of our community for this.
After the treaty of Aqabah, the Prophet told the Ansars to choose twelve people from amongst themselves, the same in one in number as the Leaders of the tribes of Bani Israa'il, to mediate between the Prophet and themselves. They introduced nine people amongst the Khazraj and three from amongst the Aws to the Prophet as their agents, and he accepted them.
Gender, age, race, tribe, homeland, and common beliefs may be considered as the basis for unity in a society.
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However, in Islam, the foundation of social unity is belief and ethics. People were told to do away with idols wherever they were found so that there would be no signs of idolatry remaining and all people would unite under One God. The second measure he took was to build masjids, places used by Muslims to gather five times a day and worship God to purify themselves from the manifestations of idolatry and polytheism.
They were also bases for their religious leaders and as areas for congregation.
Muslims would consult together about various issues and made life decisions. The masjid was also a place where judgments were made by the Prophet regarding the conflicts between Muslims. The Prophet bought himself a piece of land for this purpose Compassion and sincerity, which had been established under the protection of Islam, could be clearly seen in the teamwork practiced by the community whilst working alongside each other to build a masjid.
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Furthermore, there was no difference between any of the members of the community, be they the Prophet himself, the nobles of the Quraysh, the freed Muslim slaves, or the Ansar. God declared the affection between believers in this manner:. It is He who strengthened you with His help and with the means of the faithful, and united their hearts. Had you spent all that is in the earth, you could not have united their hearts, but God united them together.
Indeed He is All-mighty, All-wise.
This sincerity spread to such an extent that it brought the Ansar and Muhajirin close to one another and created a bond of brotherhood amongst them, as if they were a single family. Their pre-Islamic social position, tribal prejudices, and differences between them completely vanished.